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NewcastleDemonstrationsFollowingtheFlamboroughtrialsaseriesofdemonstrationswasconductedoffNewcastleuponTyne.ThesedemonstrationswereheldtocommunicatetheimportanceofresilientPNTandthepotentiallyimportantroleofeLorantoaselectedaudience.TheaudienceincludedanumberofkeydecisionmakersfromEuropeanandUKGovernmentsmaritimeindustrymarinersandotheraidstonavigationserviceprovidersandenabledthemtoobservetheeffectsofGPSjammingfirsthand.ThedemonstrationstookplaceonboardtheTrinityHousevesselGalatea.InordertomonitorandshowtheeffectofGPSjammingtwotypicalmarineGPSreceiversaneLoranreceiverandanelectronicchartdisplaywereinstalledinthevessel.TheelectronicchartdisplaywasmodifiedtoenabletwopositionstobeshownatthesametimeandwasusedtocomparethereportedGPSandeLoranpositionsinreal-time.AGPSjammingunitwasinstalledinGalateaandconfigurednottoaffectothervesselsinthevicinity.ThroughoutthedemonstrationsdifferentialLorandLorancorrectionswereusedtocalculateaneLoranpositionwithanaccuracyof9metres95probability.ObservedimpactGPSpositionsreportingunfeasiblespeedswereobservedFigure2.Howeversignificantlysubtleerrorswereseenerrorswherethevesselx19sreportedpositiondifferedslightlyfromthetruelocationandwanderedslowly.Itisthesesubtlechangeswithbelievablepositionswhichresultinhazardouslymisleadinginformation.GPSjammingcausesrandomerrorsanditisthisunpredictabilitythatcausesconcern.WhiletheoverallresultofGPSjamminginGalateawasthesameasthatobservedinPoleStartherewereafewmarkedexceptions.TheElectronicChartDisplayandInformationSystemECDISonboardPoleStarreportederroneouspositionsandultimatelyfailedduringState3.HowevertheECDISinGalateacontinuedtotrackthevesselx19spositionduetoanadditionalpositionfeedfromthevesselx19sgyromakingitmoreresilienttojammingintheshortterm.TheAIStransceiverinPoleStarreportedthevesselx19spositionerroneouslyduringthefirsttrialwhichwasobservedfromtheshore-basedvesseltrafficimageprovidedbytheMCAFigure3.DuringthedemonstrationsinGalateaherAIStransceiverfailedsafeanddidnotprovideanyerroneouspositionsFigure4.ThesedifferencesshowthattheimpactofGPSjammingwillbedifferentforeachvesselanddependsonthemodelinstallationandconfigurationoftheonboardsystems.POLESTARFLAMBOROUGHHEADDUTCHPROGRESSGalateaNewcastleuponTyneCullercoatsSunderlandSunderlandTynemouthFigure2Ascreenshotofthemodifiedelectronicchartshowingtwopositionsreportedfromthedemonstrationvessel.Thegreendotistheeloranpositionandshowsthetruelocationofthevesselwithinthejammingarearedhatchedbox.ThebluevesseliconistheerroneouslyreportedGPSposition.Thelineemergingfromtheiconisanindicationofthereportedspeedwhichwasgivenasover700knots.Figure3VesseltrafficimagefromAISmonitoredbytheMaritimeandCoastguardAgencyMCAAISstationatFlamboroughHeadduringthe2008trial.TheeffectofGPSjammingcanbeseenontheerroneouspositionsreportedbythetrialvesselPoleStarcentrerightandalsoonthevesselDutchProgresstopleft.Figure4ReportedAISpositionsofGalateashowingtwopassagestoandfromthejammingarea.Thevesselx19sAISunitfailedsafeanddidnotreportanyerroneouspositions.Imagefromwww.shipais.comConclusionsOnecanconcludethatGPSjammingcansignificantlyaffectthesafetyofmaritimenavigationwhetherinternationalornot.ThemaineffectsobservedwereThepresentationofrandomerrorsleadingtohazardouslymisleadinginformationwhichcoulddependingoninstallationleadavesseloff-course.Thepresentationoferroneousandpotentiallymisleadingdatatoothervesselsandshore-basedinfrastructure.Thesheernumberofalarmsonthebridgeofthevesselcouldbedisconcertinganddistractingforthemariner.ThelossofGPS-fedsystemswhichcancreateanunfamiliarbridgesituationandremovesafetycriticalsystemsfromoperation.ThelossofGPSoralackofintegrityinthereportedinformationleadstoanunfamiliarsituationonthebridge.ThecrewsofPoleStarandGalateawereexpectingtoloseGPSarewell-trainedandhadprimedothersystemssotheycouldnavigatesafely.Inreallifetherewouldbenoadvancenoticeandtheimpactonthecrewwouldbemoresevere.TheGLAsrecommendthatmarinersuseallavailablemeanstonavigatesafelyandstronglysupporttheneedtocreatearesilientmeansofprovidingpositionnavigationandtiminginformation.TheTrinityHousevesselGalatea.summer2010horizonPAGE17